The Moses plan mobilized neighborhood resistance.
The Joint Emergency Committee to Close Washington Square Park to Traffic -- derided by Moses as “a bunch of mothers” -- successfully fought for a ban of automobile traffic through Washington Square Park.
Neighborhood activists then formed The Joint Committee to Stop the Lower Manhattan Expressway. The group included Jane Jacobs, the urban activist who gained national attention for her advocacy of mixed-use spaces, high-density neighborhoods, and bottom-up community planning in her book The Death and Life of American Cities
Jane Jacobs in Washington Square Park, 1963. Fred W. McDarrah/Getty Images, found in Tablet magazine.